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[Mission 2023] QUED ( Questions from Editorials ) 29 December … – Insights IAS

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Introducing yet another ingenious course, InsightsIAS is excited to announce our new initiative QUED – Questions from Editorials. Considering the number of questions that appeared from Editorials in previous year UPSC Prelims Examinations, we feel it is wise for students to cover Editorials from Prelims point of view as well in order to achieve that extra edge. Although, we have covered important editorials separately in our Editorial Section as well as under Secure Initiative, MCQ practice can prove to be crucial for better performance and guaranteed result.
We strongly recommend you at add QUED along with Static Quiz ,Current Affairs Quiz and RTM for your Daily MCQ practice.
We will be posting 5 MCQs at 11am everyday from Monday to Saturday on http://www.insightsonindia.com. QUED will be available under QUIZ menu.
We hope students utilize this initiative to the best of advantage.¬† ūüôā
 
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ChatGPT and LaMDA, that are sometimes in news are
Solution: c)
 
The recent buzz around ChatGPT (Chat Generative Pre-trained Transformer), a software tool that can answer questions on almost any topic, carry on conversations with humans, write poems, computer programs and perform many more complex tasks that require intelligence, is testimony that artificial intelligence can ‚Äúcreate‚ÄĚ. One can also mention here Google‚Äôs product LaMDA (Language Model for Dialogue Applications) that is similar to ChatGPT and other sophisticated products (Dall E) that can create image from verbal descriptions.
 
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Solution: c)
 
The recent buzz around ChatGPT (Chat Generative Pre-trained Transformer), a software tool that can answer questions on almost any topic, carry on conversations with humans, write poems, computer programs and perform many more complex tasks that require intelligence, is testimony that artificial intelligence can ‚Äúcreate‚ÄĚ. One can also mention here Google‚Äôs product LaMDA (Language Model for Dialogue Applications) that is similar to ChatGPT and other sophisticated products (Dall E) that can create image from verbal descriptions.
 
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Consider the following statements.
Which of the above statement sis/are correct?
Solution: b)
 
The Indian Navy was established in 1612 by the East India Company.
 
Operation Trident¬†was an offensive operation launched by the Indian Navy on Pakistan’s port city of Karachi during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
 
The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Navy.
Solution: b)
 
The Indian Navy was established in 1612 by the East India Company.
 
Operation Trident¬†was an offensive operation launched by the Indian Navy on Pakistan’s port city of Karachi during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971.
 
The President of India is the Supreme Commander of the Indian Navy.
At any time after the expiration of three years from the date of the grant of a patent, any person interested may make an application for grant of compulsory licence on patent on which of the following grounds?
Select the correct answer code:
Solution: d)
 
At any time after the expiration of three years from the date of the grant of a patent, any person interested may make an application to the Controller for grant of compulsory licence on patent on any of the following grounds, namely:‚ÄĒ
(a) that the reasonable requirements of the public with respect to the patented invention have not been satisfied, or
(b) that the patented invention is not available to the public at a reasonably affordable price, or
(c) that the patented invention is not worked in the territory of India.
 
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Solution: d)
 
At any time after the expiration of three years from the date of the grant of a patent, any person interested may make an application to the Controller for grant of compulsory licence on patent on any of the following grounds, namely:‚ÄĒ
(a) that the reasonable requirements of the public with respect to the patented invention have not been satisfied, or
(b) that the patented invention is not available to the public at a reasonably affordable price, or
(c) that the patented invention is not worked in the territory of India.
 
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Consider the following statements regarding Compulsory licensing.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
Solution: b)
 
Compulsory licensing is when a government allows someone else to produce a patented product or process without the consent of the patent owner or plans to use the patent-protected invention itself. It is one of the flexibilities in the field of patent protection included in the WTO‚Äôs agreement on intellectual property ‚ÄĒ the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement.
 
For compulsory licensing, it’s when the generic copy is produced mainly for the domestic market, not for export.
 
The patent owner still has rights over the patent, including a right to be paid compensation for copies of the products made under the compulsory licence.
 
The TRIPS Agreement does not specifically list the reasons that might be used to justify compulsory licensing. However, the Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health confirms that countries are free to determine the grounds for granting compulsory licences, and to determine what constitutes a national emergency.
 
In March 2012, India granted its first compulsory license ever. The license was granted to Indian generic drug manufacturer Natco Pharma for Sorafenib tosylate, a cancer drug patented by Bayer.
 
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Solution: b)
 
Compulsory licensing is when a government allows someone else to produce a patented product or process without the consent of the patent owner or plans to use the patent-protected invention itself. It is one of the flexibilities in the field of patent protection included in the WTO‚Äôs agreement on intellectual property ‚ÄĒ the TRIPS (Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights) Agreement.
 
For compulsory licensing, it’s when the generic copy is produced mainly for the domestic market, not for export.
 
The patent owner still has rights over the patent, including a right to be paid compensation for copies of the products made under the compulsory licence.
 
The TRIPS Agreement does not specifically list the reasons that might be used to justify compulsory licensing. However, the Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health confirms that countries are free to determine the grounds for granting compulsory licences, and to determine what constitutes a national emergency.
 
In March 2012, India granted its first compulsory license ever. The license was granted to Indian generic drug manufacturer Natco Pharma for Sorafenib tosylate, a cancer drug patented by Bayer.
 
Source
Consider the following statements regarding Bilateral investment treaty (BIT).
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
Solution: a)
 
A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement establishing the terms and conditions for private investment by nationals and companies of one state in another state. This type of investment is called foreign direct investment (FDI). BITs are established through trade pacts.
 
The distinctive feature of many BITs is that they allow for an alternative dispute resolution mechanism, whereby an investor whose rights under the BIT have been violated could have recourse to international arbitration, often under the auspices of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), rather than suing the host State in its own courts. This process is called investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS).
 
NGOs have spoken against the use of BITs, stating that they are essentially designed to protect foreign investors and do not take into account obligations and standards to protect the environment, labour rights, social provisions or natural resources.
Solution: a)
 
A bilateral investment treaty (BIT) is an agreement establishing the terms and conditions for private investment by nationals and companies of one state in another state. This type of investment is called foreign direct investment (FDI). BITs are established through trade pacts.
 
The distinctive feature of many BITs is that they allow for an alternative dispute resolution mechanism, whereby an investor whose rights under the BIT have been violated could have recourse to international arbitration, often under the auspices of the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID), rather than suing the host State in its own courts. This process is called investor-state dispute settlement (ISDS).
 
NGOs have spoken against the use of BITs, stating that they are essentially designed to protect foreign investors and do not take into account obligations and standards to protect the environment, labour rights, social provisions or natural resources.
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