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What Is a Proxy Server? Working, Types, Benefits, and Challenges – Spiceworks News and Insights

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A proxy sits between the client device and the internet to regulate internet access and mask the client’s IP address.

A proxy server is defined as a remotely hosted software application that sits between the client device and the wider internet to govern and, often, regulate how requests are sent and responses and resources are received while masking the requester’s IP address. This article explains how proxy servers work and discusses the benefits and challenges of using one. 
Every device on a computer network has an internet protocol (IP) address that specifically identifies the device. Similarly, the proxy server is a networked computer with a unique IP address. This allows the proxy server to serve as a bridge between users and the internet. Essentially, it is a server acting as a middleman between visitors and the websites they visit. Depending on the use case, demands, or company policy, proxy servers offer varying degrees of functionality, security, and privacy. 
The history of networking and the internet itself, dating back to the 1970s, is probably where the history of proxy servers begins. The first proxy servers provided a functional and secure separation layer between local-area networks (LAN) and external networks. Early proxies allowed the shared use of single connections between various computing units by establishing a physical connection between the client application and the computer, where they received and transmitted commands.
Over the years, developers continued to produce increasingly promising proxy technologies. This has resulted in advanced proxy servers that can support customization, extension, and simple deployment. Users can even find programmable proxies in the market that can perform high-end networking functions.
Cybersecurity is one of the key reasons to use proxy servers today. They shield endpoints from threats like malware by enforcing web filters or firewalls that can be configured. When someone uses a proxy server, all internet traffic going to the IP they requested passes through the proxy server. The request is then redirected through the same proxy server, and the proxy server sends the information from the website to users. This prevents fraudsters from intercepting your traffic or monitoring online transactions without authorization. 
This added security is also beneficial when used with a secure web gateway or other email security tools. You can factor in the amount of traffic that a network or specific computers can handle, its level of safety, or both when filtering traffic in this way. 
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Proxy servers can be classified into six types:
Proxy Server Types
Proxy Server Types
Most transparent proxies can be detected close to a corporate network’s external perimeter. It is called transparent because it relays the connection between the user or client and the web without modifying either the request or its response. Transparent proxies are installed mainly to filter or cache content. Such technology may be used by businesses and educational institutions to restrict access to specific websites. To cache data and filter content, libraries may also employ transparent proxies.
In forward proxies, a client’s requests are forwarded by forwarding proxies to a web server. A forward proxy is used to deliver data from groups of users on an internal network, acting as an intermediary between the clients and the internet. It examines each request that’s sent before determining whether or not to establish a connection and also takes actions on the user’s behalf, such as routing the request to the correct destination. 
Internal networks that require a single point of entry are best suited for forwarding proxies. It offers network security for users and enables simple administrative control. A forward proxy, however, might make it more difficult for an organization to meet each end-user’s specific needs.
Anonymous proxies are servers that conceal the client’s IP address, allowing access to resources blocked by firewalls or IP address bans. They could be utilized to increase privacy or as a defense against cyber attacks. 
Internet activity cannot be tracked or intercepted when using an anonymous proxy. This is the best option if a user wants to access the internet completely anonymously. While anonymous proxies offer some of the best identity protection available, there are some disadvantages as well – that is why high anonymity proxies are essential in certain use cases. 
Highly anonymous proxies display a non-proxy public IP address and conceal the fact that clients are using them. As a result, they not only conceal the client’s IP address but also enable access to websites that might restrict proxy servers. A high anonymity proxy goes one step beyond standard anonymity.
Users’ information is deleted before the proxy attempts to connect to the target website, which is how it operates. The server is best suited for users who require absolute anonymity, such as employees who don’t want their activity linked to their employer.
While concealing its actual identity, the proxy presents itself to a website as a different IP address. Users who want to conceal their location when using the internet – for example, when running an investigation or penetration test – can consider using this technology. 
This kind of proxy gives people the benefit of masking not only their identity but also the proxy’s identity, giving the impression that users are browsing from a particular country. Nevertheless, some websites automatically prohibit distorted proxies, which may prevent end users from accessing those websites.
Reverse proxies are effectively forward proxies in reverse; they are like a proxy server that often forwards requests from the internet to users in an internal network via a firewall. 
Users’ access to web servers hosting sensitive data is controlled and tracked by reverse proxies. A firewall routes user requests to the reverse proxy across the internet. If the proxy approves the user’s request, it obtains this data from the web server and responds to the user. Before receiving the requested data from the server, a reverse proxy will first see if it is already cached.
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As seen in the previous section, different types of proxies work differently. However, their overall operations can be broken down as follows. 
The proxy server is undetectable to the user; all requests made to the internet and responses received appear to be sent directly to the addressed internet server. However, the proxy is not technically invisible, and you need to select a configuration setting in the browser or other network protocol program to specify the proxy’s IP address. 
As proxies have an IP address, they behave like a regular endpoint. All in all, different location proxies serve as a shield that keeps the user’s identity and location hidden from the public while allowing them to access open-source web data without facing any kind of geolocation-based discrimination.
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To maintain online privacy, proxy servers are a crucial tool. Proxy servers function as a go-between for computers and the websites users access. Due to this, it’s challenging for cybercriminals to track users’ activities. Although not foolproof, using a proxy server can help shield users from many common cyberattacks. Yet, proxy servers have several shortcomings of their own. Before we discuss the challenges of using proxy servers, let us discuss their benefits. 
Proxy servers are beneficial for organizations as they: 
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Now let us look at the potential shortcomings of proxies. 
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Proxy servers are now a staple for internal security. Not only are proxies used by individuals looking to ensure online privacy, but they are also beneficial for enterprise users. For instance, software developers can check if an app complies with regional internet rules with the help of a proxy. Penetration testing can show if a hidden vulnerability appears when (seemingly) exploiting an app from a different location. When deployed intelligently, proxy servers can open up new opportunities and optimize the resources needed for frequently accessed web pages. 
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Technical Writer


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